Libya has fractured into several factions with uncertain local, regional and international alliances. The question of legitimacy is contested at all levels and ongoing battles for power and legitimacy result in violence on the ground.

Libya has the largest oil reserves in Africa. Nevertheless, the Libyan economy has experienced a major decline since 2014 due to political unrest and conflict over control of the oil fields.

The political instability and polarization of Libya and in the country’s regional and international engagement have made it very difficult to implement policies. Municipalities provide basic services, but this depends on local conditions, which vary to a great extent. Militias and private security actors sometimes change sides and they rarely obey the government.

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