In the presidential election in March 2018 al-Sisi received 97% of valid votes, but the environment in which the elections took place and the run-up made them a farce. Several potential candidates deemed it impossible to run and those who publicly announced their intentions were imprisoned on charges of breaching military law.

Egypt depends strongly on volatile sources of revenue, such as tourism, the Suez Canal or remittances from workers in oil-producing countries, which fluctuate with domestic developments and the global economic situation. This makes it difficult to overcome the most important socioeconomic barriers to transformation.

Both Egypt’s natural and social conditions constrain the political leadership’s governance capacity.

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