BTI 2016

Transformation Index

 

The Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI) analyzes and evaluates the quality of democracy, a market economy and political management in 129 developing and transition countries. It measures successes and setbacks on the path toward a democracy based on the rule of law and a socially responsible market economy.

Rank Country Value
1 Taiwan 9.53
2 Estonia 9.49
3 Czech Republic 9.40
4 Uruguay 9.26
5 Poland 9.23
6 Lithuania 9.15
7 Slovenia 9.01
8 Chile 8.77
9 Slovakia 8.75
10 Latvia 8.63
11 South Korea 8.57
12 Costa Rica 8.49
13 Mauritius 8.09
14 Romania 8.06
15 Croatia 7.93
16 Bulgaria 7.91
17 Botswana 7.84
18 Hungary 7.69
19 Brazil 7.60
20 Montenegro 7.48
21 Serbia 7.43
22 Panama 7.32
23 Turkey 7.30
24 Jamaica 7.20
25 Singapore 7.17
26 Namibia 7.05
26 South Africa 7.05
28 India 6.96
29 El Salvador 6.90
30 Ghana 6.88
31 Macedonia 6.86
31 Peru 6.86
33 Albania 6.71
34 Argentina 6.65
34 Colombia 6.65
36 Mongolia 6.61
37 Bolivia 6.58
38 Philippines 6.53
39 Indonesia 6.47
40 Dominican Republic 6.44
41 Mexico 6.40
42 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.38
42 Paraguay 6.38
44 Kosovo 6.33
45 Georgia 6.31
46 Benin 6.28
47 Moldova 6.24
48 Malaysia 6.21
49 Uganda 6.19
50 Tunisia 6.15
51 Senegal 6.11
52 Ukraine 6.05
52 United Arab Emirates 6.05
54 Bhutan 6.02
55 Qatar 6.01
56 Honduras 5.94
57 Kuwait 5.85
58 Kenya 5.80
59 Lebanon 5.74
60 Kyrgyzstan 5.71
61 Zambia 5.70
62 Sri Lanka 5.58
62 Tanzania 5.58
64 Armenia 5.56
65 Ecuador 5.55
65 Malawi 5.55
67 Liberia 5.54
68 Nicaragua 5.53
69 Niger 5.40
70 Bangladesh 5.39
71 Sierra Leone 5.37
72 Papua New Guinea 5.36
73 Lesotho 5.33
74 Mozambique 5.23
75 Mali 5.18
76 Guatemala 5.13
77 Algeria 5.11
78 Côte d'Ivoire 5.09
78 Jordan 5.09
80 Guinea 5.08
81 Russia 5.06
82 Madagascar 4.97
83 Bahrain 4.96
84 China 4.95
85 Kazakhstan 4.88
85 Nigeria 4.88
87 Rwanda 4.83
88 Thailand 4.79
89 Oman 4.75
90 Nepal 4.74
91 Vietnam 4.72
92 Burkina Faso 4.71
93 Togo 4.70
94 Morocco 4.60
95 Azerbaijan 4.44
96 Egypt 4.40
97 Burundi 4.36
98 Mauritania 4.35
99 Belarus 4.27
100 Cameroon 4.26
100 Saudi Arabia 4.26
102 Angola 4.16
103 Cuba 4.15
104 Cambodia 4.12
105 Venezuela 4.04
106 Pakistan 3.90
107 Laos 3.83
107 Zimbabwe 3.83
109 Tajikistan 3.60
110 Congo, Rep. 3.58
111 Ethiopia 3.55
112 Iraq 3.53
113 Chad 3.50
114 Haiti 3.46
115 Uzbekistan 3.40
116 Turkmenistan 3.39
117 Congo, DR 3.09
118 Iran 2.98
118 Myanmar 2.98
120 Afghanistan 2.95
121 Yemen 2.91
122 Central African Republic 2.89
123 South Sudan 2.82
124 Libya 2.64
125 Sudan 2.44
126 North Korea 2.14
127 Syria 1.80
128 Eritrea 1.71
129 Somalia 1.38
Rank Country Value Trend
1 Uruguay 9.95
2 Estonia 9.70
3 Taiwan 9.55
4 Poland 9.50
5 Czech Republic 9.45
6 Lithuania 9.30
7 Costa Rica 9.20
7 Slovenia 9.20
9 Chile 9.15
10 Slovakia 8.85
11 Latvia 8.75
12 Mauritius 8.60
13 South Korea 8.50
14 Croatia 8.40
15 Jamaica 8.30
16 Botswana 8.25
17 Bulgaria 8.15
17 Romania 8.15
19 Brazil 8.05
20 Ghana 7.90
21 Montenegro 7.85
21 Serbia 7.85
23 India 7.75
23 Namibia 7.75
25 Hungary 7.60
25 Panama 7.60
25 South Africa 7.60
28 Argentina 7.55
28 Benin 7.55
30 Bolivia 7.30
30 El Salvador 7.30
30 Mongolia 7.30
33 Turkey 7.25
34 Senegal 7.15
35 Dominican Republic 7.10
36 Albania 6.95
37 Indonesia 6.90
38 Paraguay 6.75
38 Ukraine 6.75
40 Georgia 6.70
40 Moldova 6.70
40 Niger 6.70
40 Philippines 6.70
44 Colombia 6.65
44 Kosovo 6.65
44 Macedonia 6.65
47 Uganda 6.60
48 Honduras 6.55
49 Liberia 6.55
49 Peru 6.55
51 Bhutan 6.50
51 Malawi 6.50
53 Sierra Leone 6.42
54 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.30
54 Mexico 6.30
54 Tunisia 6.30
57 Kenya 6.25
57 Zambia 6.25
59 Tanzania 6.15
60 Kyrgyzstan 5.95
61 Papua New Guinea 5.90
62 Mali 5.85
63 Guinea 5.80
64 Lebanon 5.70
65 Lesotho 5.65
66 Mozambique 5.60
66 Nicaragua 5.60
68 Côte d'Ivoire 5.50
69 Ecuador 5.45
70 Madagascar 5.40
70 Nigeria 5.40
72 Singapore 5.37
73 Bangladesh 5.35
74 Armenia 5.23
75 Nepal 5.20
76 Guatemala 5.15
77 Malaysia 4.98
78 Algeria 4.80
78 Togo 4.80
80 Burkina Faso 4.73
81 Sri Lanka 4.67
82 Burundi 4.62
83 Russia 4.40
84 Kuwait 4.38
85 Mauritania 4.27
86 Angola 4.25
87 Zimbabwe 4.20
88 Jordan 4.03
89 Venezuela 4.02
90 United Arab Emirates 3.95
91 Belarus 3.93
91 Egypt 3.93
93 Morocco 3.83
93 Qatar 3.83
93 Rwanda 3.83
96 Cameroon 3.80
97 Haiti 3.75
98 Cambodia 3.73
98 Kazakhstan 3.73
100 Pakistan 3.70
101 Cuba 3.68
102 Tajikistan 3.55
103 Vietnam 3.52
104 Chad 3.50
105 Azerbaijan 3.48
105 Bahrain 3.48
107 Congo, Rep. 3.45
107 Iraq 3.45
109 Congo, DR 3.40
110 Thailand 3.30
111 China 3.28
111 South Sudan 3.28
113 Ethiopia 3.23
114 Oman 3.22
115 Central African Republic 3.20
115 Myanmar 3.20
117 Afghanistan 3.02
117 Uzbekistan 3.02
119 Iran 2.97
120 Laos 2.90
121 Turkmenistan 2.85
122 Yemen 2.82
123 North Korea 2.60
124 Saudi Arabia 2.52
125 Sudan 2.48
126 Libya 2.38
127 Eritrea 2.07
128 Syria 1.70
129 Somalia 1.50
Rank Country Value Trend
1 Taiwan 9.50
2 Czech Republic 9.36
3 Estonia 9.29
4 Lithuania 9.00
5 Poland 8.96
5 Singapore 8.96
7 Slovenia 8.82
8 Slovakia 8.64
8 South Korea 8.64
10 Uruguay 8.57
11 Latvia 8.50
12 Chile 8.39
13 Qatar 8.18
14 United Arab Emirates 8.14
15 Romania 7.96
16 Costa Rica 7.79
16 Hungary 7.79
18 Bulgaria 7.68
19 Mauritius 7.57
20 Croatia 7.46
21 Botswana 7.43
21 Malaysia 7.43
23 Turkey 7.36
24 Kuwait 7.32
25 Peru 7.18
26 Brazil 7.14
27 Montenegro 7.11
28 Macedonia 7.07
29 Panama 7.04
30 Serbia 7.00
31 Colombia 6.64
32 China 6.61
33 El Salvador 6.50
33 Mexico 6.50
33 South Africa 6.50
33 Sri Lanka 6.50
37 Albania 6.46
37 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.46
39 Bahrain 6.43
40 Namibia 6.36
40 Philippines 6.36
42 Oman 6.29
42 Thailand 6.29
44 India 6.18
45 Jordan 6.14
46 Jamaica 6.11
47 Indonesia 6.04
47 Kazakhstan 6.04
49 Kosovo 6.00
49 Paraguay 6.00
49 Saudi Arabia 6.00
49 Tunisia 6.00
53 Georgia 5.93
53 Mongolia 5.93
53 Vietnam 5.93
56 Armenia 5.89
57 Bolivia 5.86
57 Ghana 5.86
59 Rwanda 5.82
60 Dominican Republic 5.79
60 Lebanon 5.79
60 Moldova 5.79
60 Uganda 5.79
64 Argentina 5.75
65 Russia 5.71
66 Ecuador 5.64
67 Bhutan 5.54
68 Kyrgyzstan 5.46
68 Nicaragua 5.46
70 Algeria 5.43
70 Bangladesh 5.43
72 Azerbaijan 5.39
73 Kenya 5.36
73 Morocco 5.36
73 Ukraine 5.36
76 Honduras 5.32
77 Zambia 5.14
78 Guatemala 5.11
79 Senegal 5.07
80 Benin 5.00
80 Lesotho 5.00
80 Tanzania 5.00
83 Egypt 4.86
83 Mozambique 4.86
85 Papua New Guinea 4.82
86 Laos 4.75
87 Cameroon 4.71
88 Burkina Faso 4.68
88 Côte d'Ivoire 4.68
90 Belarus 4.61
90 Cuba 4.61
90 Malawi 4.61
90 Togo 4.61
94 Liberia 4.54
94 Madagascar 4.54
96 Cambodia 4.50
96 Mali 4.50
98 Mauritania 4.43
99 Guinea 4.36
99 Nigeria 4.36
101 Sierra Leone 4.32
102 Nepal 4.29
103 Burundi 4.11
103 Niger 4.11
103 Pakistan 4.11
106 Angola 4.07
106 Venezuela 4.07
108 Turkmenistan 3.93
109 Ethiopia 3.86
110 Uzbekistan 3.79
111 Congo, Rep. 3.71
112 Tajikistan 3.64
113 Iraq 3.61
114 Chad 3.50
115 Zimbabwe 3.46
116 Haiti 3.18
117 Iran 3.00
117 Yemen 3.00
119 Afghanistan 2.89
119 Libya 2.89
121 Congo, DR 2.79
122 Myanmar 2.75
123 Central African Republic 2.57
124 Sudan 2.39
125 South Sudan 2.36
129 Somalia 2.00
126 Syria 1.89
127 North Korea 1.68
128 Eritrea 1.36
Rank Country Value
1 Uruguay 7.56
2 Chile 7.51
3 Taiwan 7.48
4 Estonia 7.40
5 Poland 7.22
6 Lithuania 7.19
7 Latvia 6.97
8 Slovakia 6.96
9 Botswana 6.95
10 South Korea 6.89
11 Costa Rica 6.87
12 Czech Republic 6.85
13 El Salvador 6.76
14 Brazil 6.73
15 Mauritius 6.68
16 Senegal 6.65
17 Bhutan 6.55
18 Slovenia 6.47
19 Ghana 6.41
20 Croatia 6.39
21 Montenegro 6.37
22 Serbia 6.30
23 Liberia 6.16
24 India 6.14
24 Paraguay 6.14
26 Namibia 6.12
27 South Africa 6.09
28 Colombia 6.08
29 Turkey 6.03
30 Jamaica 5.99
31 Singapore 5.96
32 Bulgaria 5.94
32 Niger 5.94
34 Panama 5.86
35 Guinea 5.81
35 Mongolia 5.81
37 Romania 5.79
38 Albania 5.74
39 Georgia 5.72
40 Uganda 5.70
41 Macedonia 5.67
42 Malawi 5.63
43 Dominican Republic 5.62
44 Bolivia 5.60
45 Honduras 5.56
46 Indonesia 5.54
47 Malaysia 5.44
48 Benin 5.42
49 Mali 5.40
50 United Arab Emirates 5.36
51 Peru 5.35
51 Sierra Leone 5.35
53 Qatar 5.33
54 Moldova 5.31
55 Mexico 5.29
55 Tunisia 5.29
57 Philippines 5.20
58 Zambia 5.19
59 Kosovo 5.15
60 Tanzania 5.14
61 Côte d'Ivoire 5.13
62 Rwanda 5.10
63 Kenya 5.00
63 Mozambique 5.00
65 Ukraine 4.98
66 Burkina Faso 4.92
67 Nicaragua 4.90
68 Madagascar 4.84
69 Vietnam 4.83
70 Togo 4.82
71 Argentina 4.78
71 Kyrgyzstan 4.78
73 Papua New Guinea 4.77
74 China 4.70
75 Jordan 4.68
76 Hungary 4.67
77 Guatemala 4.60
78 Sri Lanka 4.51
79 Ecuador 4.44
80 Algeria 4.43
81 Morocco 4.37
82 Bangladesh 4.36
82 Egypt 4.36
84 Armenia 4.29
84 Kuwait 4.29
86 Central African Republic 4.28
87 Kazakhstan 4.25
88 Iraq 4.21
89 Mauritania 4.20
90 Myanmar 4.18
91 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.09
92 Burundi 4.07
93 Cuba 4.06
93 Nigeria 4.06
95 Nepal 4.05
96 Lesotho 4.04
97 Lebanon 3.90
98 Afghanistan 3.88
99 Thailand 3.87
100 Bahrain 3.86
101 Saudi Arabia 3.82
101 Yemen 3.82
103 Azerbaijan 3.72
104 Laos 3.67
104 Oman 3.67
106 Angola 3.63
106 Cameroon 3.63
108 Ethiopia 3.48
109 Haiti 3.44
110 Congo, Rep. 3.43
111 Cambodia 3.40
112 Pakistan 3.31
113 Tajikistan 3.28
114 Russia 3.17
115 South Sudan 2.99
116 Belarus 2.98
117 Chad 2.79
118 Congo, DR 2.76
119 Zimbabwe 2.71
120 Iran 2.69
121 Libya 2.43
122 Turkmenistan 2.39
123 Somalia 2.08
124 Sudan 2.02
125 Uzbekistan 1.94
126 Venezuela 1.86
127 North Korea 1.22
128 Syria 1.20
129 Eritrea 1.13
 

In-depth country reports provide the basis for assessing the state of transformation and persistent challenges, and to evaluate the ability of policymakers to carry out consistent and targeted reforms. The BTI is the first cross-national comparative index that uses self-collected data to comprehensively measure the quality of governance during processes of transition.

The Status Index ranks the countries according to their quality of democracy and market economy as of January 31, 2015. 

The state of political transformation is measured in terms of five criteria, which in turn are derived from assessments made in response to 18 questions. The BTI’s concept of democracy goes well beyond other definitions, which are limited primarily to basic civil rights and the conduct of free elections. Stateness, which is seen as a precondition to democracy, is included in the BTI's definition of political transformation and examined through questions specifically dealing with the state’s monopoly on the use of force and basic administrative structures. It also entails an evaluation of the rule of law including the separation of powers and the prosecution of office abuse. The BTI puts a special emphasis on the evaluation of democratic consolidation. It assesses the quality of representation with regard to the party system and interest groups, and also measures social capital and the approval of democratic norms and procedures. 

The state of economic transformation is measured in terms of seven criteria, which are based on a total of 14 indicators. The BTI’s concept of a market economy includes not only aspects such as economic performance, regulatory or competition policy and property rights; it also includes elements of social justice, such as social safety nets, equality of opportunity and sustainability. In BTI terms, comprehensive development not only aims at economic growth, but also requires successful poverty alleviation and the freedom of action and choice for as many citizens as possible.

The Management Index ranks the countries according to their leadership’s political management performance between February 2013 and January 2015.

By examining and evaluating decision-makers’ reform policies, the BTI sheds light on those factors determining success and failure on the way to democracy and a market economy. Successful transformation management implies that governments are consistent in pursuing their goals and use their resources wisely and effectively. It also implies that decision-makers cultivate the broadest possible consensus for their transformation goals and work reliably with external supporters and neighboring states.

The Management Index is comprised of five criteria, which are based on a total of 20 indicators. A government’s management performance is weighted with the level of difficulty, which is derived from three qualitative and three quantitative indicators. It reflects the observation that each country’s quality of transformation is influenced by structural constraints. In this way, difficult conditions and the scarcity of resources in a given country are factored into the equation for political management performance.