BTI 2018

Transformation Index

The Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI) analyzes and evaluates the quality of democracy, a market economy and political management in 129 developing and transition countries. It measures successes and setbacks on the path toward a democracy based on the rule of law and a socially responsible market economy.

Rank Country Score
1 Czech Republic 9.52
1 Estonia 9.52
3 Taiwan 9.42
4 Lithuania 9.24
5 Uruguay 9.19
6 Slovenia 9.18
7 Chile 8.87
8 Latvia 8.68
9 Slovakia 8.59
10 Poland 8.58
11 South Korea 8.55
12 Costa Rica 8.49
13 Mauritius 8.25
14 Croatia 8.07
15 Romania 8.06
16 Botswana 7.89
17 Bulgaria 7.80
18 Hungary 7.43
19 Serbia 7.40
20 Montenegro 7.35
21 Jamaica 7.31
22 Brazil 7.29
23 Argentina 7.27
24 Singapore 7.15
25 Panama 7.11
26 India 6.96
26 South Africa 6.96
28 El Salvador 6.88
29 Peru 6.85
30 Albania 6.83
31 Macedonia 6.76
32 Ghana 6.75
33 Sri Lanka 6.61
34 Colombia 6.59
34 Mongolia 6.59
36 Ukraine 6.54
37 Namibia 6.50
38 Philippines 6.47
39 Bolivia 6.46
40 Dominican Republic 6.44
41 Benin 6.43
42 Georgia 6.42
43 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.28
44 Tunisia 6.27
45 Bhutan 6.25
45 Indonesia 6.25
47 Paraguay 6.24
48 Mexico 6.23
49 Kosovo 6.21
50 Senegal 6.18
51 Turkey 6.17
52 United Arab Emirates 6.07
53 Malaysia 6.00
54 Moldova 5.96
55 Kyrgyzstan 5.90
56 Qatar 5.88
57 Kenya 5.80
58 Ecuador 5.72
59 Uganda 5.66
60 Kuwait 5.61
61 Armenia 5.58
61 Papua New Guinea 5.58
63 Liberia 5.56
64 Honduras 5.51
64 Tanzania 5.51
66 Malawi 5.49
67 Burkina Faso 5.45
67 Zambia 5.45
69 Côte d'Ivoire 5.38
70 Russia 5.31
71 Guinea 5.28
72 Jordan 5.22
73 Lesotho 5.19
74 Lebanon 5.15
74 Sierra Leone 5.15
76 Mali 5.14
76 Nicaragua 5.14
78 Niger 5.13
79 Bangladesh 5.11
80 Guatemala 5.08
81 China 5.02
82 Madagascar 5.01
83 Algeria 4.98
84 Togo 4.89
85 Rwanda 4.80
86 Belarus 4.72
87 Thailand 4.71
88 Kazakhstan 4.70
89 Bahrain 4.62
90 Morocco 4.61
91 Nigeria 4.60
92 Nepal 4.52
93 Oman 4.43
94 Vietnam 4.41
95 Mozambique 4.31
96 Egypt 4.28
97 Saudi Arabia 4.27
98 Cameroon 4.23
99 Mauritania 4.22
100 Azerbaijan 4.13
101 Cuba 4.02
102 Pakistan 4.01
103 Cambodia 4.00
104 Burundi 3.97
105 Angola 3.94
106 Laos 3.85
107 Iraq 3.75
108 Uzbekistan 3.73
109 Haiti 3.50
110 Venezuela 3.47
111 Congo, Rep. 3.38
111 Myanmar 3.38
113 Ethiopia 3.33
113 Zimbabwe 3.33
115 Chad 3.31
115 Tajikistan 3.31
117 Central African Republic 3.28
118 Iran 3.15
119 Turkmenistan 3.14
120 Congo, DR 3.13
121 Afghanistan 2.95
122 Libya 2.60
123 Sudan 2.28
124 South Sudan 2.27
125 North Korea 2.16
126 Eritrea 1.84
127 Yemen 1.72
128 Syria 1.57
129 Somalia 1.34
Rank Country Score Trend
1 Uruguay 9.95
2 Estonia 9.75
3 Taiwan 9.55
4 Lithuania 9.45
5 Czech Republic 9.40
6 Slovenia 9.25
7 Chile 9.20
8 Costa Rica 9.05
9 Latvia 8.75
10 Slovakia 8.60
11 Poland 8.55
12 Mauritius 8.50
13 South Korea 8.45
14 Croatia 8.35
15 Jamaica 8.30
16 Botswana 8.20
17 Romania 8.15
18 Bulgaria 8.10
19 Argentina 8.00
20 Ghana 7.90
21 Benin 7.85
22 Serbia 7.70
23 Brazil 7.65
24 India 7.60
24 South Africa 7.60
26 Montenegro 7.55
27 Namibia 7.50
28 Mongolia 7.40
29 El Salvador 7.30
29 Panama 7.30
31 Bolivia 7.20
32 Hungary 7.15
33 Senegal 7.10
34 Albania 7.05
35 Dominican Republic 6.95
36 Ukraine 6.90
37 Georgia 6.80
38 Colombia 6.75
39 Peru 6.60
40 Bhutan 6.57
41 Liberia 6.55
41 Sri Lanka 6.55
43 Indonesia 6.50
43 Tunisia 6.50
45 Kosovo 6.45
45 Macedonia 6.45
45 Malawi 6.45
45 Paraguay 6.45
49 Burkina Faso 6.40
50 Niger 6.30
50 Papua New Guinea 6.30
50 Philippines 6.30
53 Kenya 6.25
54 Moldova 6.20
55 Kyrgyzstan 6.15
55 Sierra Leone 6.15
57 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.10
57 Mexico 6.10
57 Tanzania 6.10
60 Guinea 6.05
61 Zambia 6.00
62 Mali 5.95
63 Ecuador 5.90
64 Côte d'Ivoire 5.80
64 Honduras 5.80
66 Lesotho 5.60
67 Turkey 5.55
68 Uganda 5.43
69 Singapore 5.42
70 Madagascar 5.35
70 Nigeria 5.35
72 Armenia 5.12
73 Togo 5.07
74 Guatemala 5.05
75 Nicaragua 4.92
76 Nepal 4.90
77 Lebanon 4.87
77 Malaysia 4.78
79 Algeria 4.75
80 Bangladesh 4.62
81 Russia 4.55
82 Kuwait 4.50
83 Mozambique 4.48
84 Jordan 4.37
85 Belarus 4.33
86 Mauritania 4.22
87 Angola 4.20
88 Haiti 4.10
89 United Arab Emirates 4.00
90 Cameroon 3.92
91 Rwanda 3.88
92 Zimbabwe 3.83
93 Burundi 3.80
93 Kazakhstan 3.80
93 Morocco 3.80
93 Venezuela 3.80
97 Qatar 3.73
98 Egypt 3.70
98 Pakistan 3.70
100 Central African Republic 3.60
100 Iraq 3.60
102 Cuba 3.58
103 Cambodia 3.57
104 Myanmar 3.50
105 Congo, DR 3.47
106 Chad 3.45
107 Azerbaijan 3.43
108 Vietnam 3.35
109 China 3.28
110 Congo, Rep. 3.25
110 Thailand 3.25
112 Bahrain 3.23
113 Uzbekistan 3.17
114 Afghanistan 3.02
114 Ethiopia 3.02
116 Oman 3.00
117 Tajikistan 2.98
119 Iran 2.92
118 Laos 2.92
120 Turkmenistan 2.85
121 South Sudan 2.62
122 North Korea 2.60
123 Libya 2.57
123 Saudi Arabia 2.57
125 Sudan 2.23
126 Eritrea 2.12
127 Yemen 1.80
128 Syria 1.75
129 Somalia 1.43
Rank Country Score Trend
1 Czech Republic 9.64
2 Estonia 9.29
3 Taiwan 9.29
4 Slovenia 9.11
5 Lithuania 9.04
6 Singapore 8.89
7 South Korea 8.64
8 Latvia 8.61
8 Poland 8.61
10 Slovakia 8.57
11 Chile 8.54
12 Uruguay 8.43
13 United Arab Emirates 8.14
14 Qatar 8.04
15 Mauritius 8.00
16 Romania 7.96
17 Costa Rica 7.93
18 Croatia 7.79
19 Hungary 7.71
20 Botswana 7.57
21 Bulgaria 7.50
22 Malaysia 7.21
23 Montenegro 7.14
24 Peru 7.11
24 Serbia 7.11
26 Macedonia 7.07
27 Brazil 6.93
27 Panama 6.93
29 Turkey 6.79
30 China 6.75
31 Kuwait 6.71
32 Sri Lanka 6.68
33 Philippines 6.64
34 Albania 6.61
35 Argentina 6.54
36 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.46
36 El Salvador 6.46
38 Colombia 6.43
39 Mexico 6.36
40 India 6.32
40 Jamaica 6.32
40 South Africa 6.32
43 Thailand 6.18
43 Ukraine 6.18
45 Jordan 6.07
45 Russia 6.07
47 Armenia 6.04
47 Georgia 6.04
47 Paraguay 6.04
47 Tunisia 6.04
51 Bahrain 6.00
51 Indonesia 6.00
53 Kosovo 5.96
53 Saudi Arabia 5.96
53 Bhutan 5.93
53 Dominican Republic 5.93
57 Uganda 5.89
58 Oman 5.86
59 Mongolia 5.79
60 Bolivia 5.71
60 Moldova 5.71
60 Rwanda 5.71
63 Kyrgyzstan 5.64
64 Bangladesh 5.61
64 Ghana 5.61
64 Kazakhstan 5.61
67 Ecuador 5.54
68 Namibia 5.50
69 Vietnam 5.46
70 Lebanon 5.43
70 Morocco 5.43
72 Kenya 5.36
72 Nicaragua 5.36
74 Senegal 5.25
75 Algeria 5.21
75 Honduras 5.21
77 Belarus 5.11
77 Guatemala 5.11
79 Benin 5.00
80 Côte d'Ivoire 4.96
81 Tanzania 4.93
82 Zambia 4.89
83 Egypt 4.86
83 Papua New Guinea 4.86
85 Azerbaijan 4.82
86 Laos 4.79
86 Lesotho 4.79
88 Togo 4.71
89 Madagascar 4.68
90 Liberia 4.57
91 Cameroon 4.54
91 Malawi 4.54
93 Burkina Faso 4.50
93 Guinea 4.50
95 Cuba 4.46
96 Cambodia 4.43
97 Mali 4.32
97 Pakistan 4.32
99 Uzbekistan 4.29
100 Mauritania 4.21
101 Burundi 4.14
101 Mozambique 4.14
101 Nepal 4.14
101 Sierra Leone 4.14
105 Niger 3.96
106 Iraq 3.89
107 Nigeria 3.86
108 Angola 3.68
109 Ethiopia 3.64
109 Tajikistan 3.64
111 Congo, Rep. 3.50
112 Turkmenistan 3.43
113 Iran 3.39
114 Myanmar 3.25
115 Chad 3.18
116 Venezuela 3.14
117 Central African Republic 2.96
118 Afghanistan 2.89
118 Haiti 2.89
120 Zimbabwe 2.82
121 Congo, DR 2.79
122 Libya 2.64
123 Sudan 2.32
124 South Sudan 1.93
125 North Korea 1.71
126 Yemen 1.64
127 Eritrea 1.57
128 Syria 1.39
129 Somalia 1.25
Rank Country Score
1 Estonia 7.44
2 Uruguay 7.36
3 Chile 7.33
3 Taiwan 7.33
5 Lithuania 7.18
6 Botswana 7.09
7 Czech Republic 7.03
8 Latvia 7.00
9 Costa Rica 6.85
10 Slovenia 6.78
11 Senegal 6.70
11 Slovakia 6.70
13 Mauritius 6.64
14 El Salvador 6.57
15 South Korea 6.51
16 Bhutan 6.50
17 Montenegro 6.49
18 Poland 6.25
19 Ghana 6.18
20 Colombia 6.14
21 Croatia 6.07
22 Serbia 6.06
23 Paraguay 6.04
24 Albania 6.02
24 India 6.02
26 Argentina 6.00
27 Bulgaria 5.98
28 Mongolia 5.96
28 South Africa 5.96
30 Brazil 5.95
30 Singapore 5.95
32 Romania 5.89
33 Georgia 5.87
33 Niger 5.87
35 Benin 5.86
35 Jamaica 5.86
37 Liberia 5.84
38 Guinea 5.82
39 Peru 5.81
40 Panama 5.72
41 Bolivia 5.66
42 Malawi 5.61
43 Sri Lanka 5.60
44 Dominican Republic 5.57
45 United Arab Emirates 5.55
46 Côte d'Ivoire 5.54
47 Namibia 5.49
48 Indonesia 5.45
49 Ukraine 5.41
50 Qatar 5.40
51 Tunisia 5.33
52 Uganda 5.31
53 Macedonia 5.24
54 Burkina Faso 5.20
54 Malaysia 5.20
54 Rwanda 5.20
57 Kosovo 5.17
57 Mali 5.17
57 Mexico 5.17
60 Moldova 5.15
61 Madagascar 5.12
62 Togo 5.10
63 Tanzania 5.07
64 Zambia 5.06
65 Ecuador 4.99
66 Honduras 4.98
67 Sierra Leone 4.93
68 Kenya 4.92
69 Philippines 4.90
70 Jordan 4.84
71 China 4.79
72 Papua New Guinea 4.78
73 Kyrgyzstan 4.73
74 Turkey 4.72
75 Nigeria 4.59
76 Algeria 4.55
77 Guatemala 4.52
78 Vietnam 4.51
79 Hungary 4.44
80 Iraq 4.43
81 Kazakhstan 4.41
82 Kuwait 4.37
83 Morocco 4.28
84 Bangladesh 4.27
85 Armenia 4.25
85 Mozambique 4.25
87 Nicaragua 4.22
88 Central African Republic 4.10
89 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.09
90 Mauritania 4.06
91 Afghanistan 4.02
92 Myanmar 3.97
93 Egypt 3.96
94 Cuba 3.93
95 Laos 3.89
95 Thailand 3.89
97 Azerbaijan 3.86
98 Saudi Arabia 3.80
99 Nepal 3.74
100 Ethiopia 3.65
101 Angola 3.60
101 Lebanon 3.60
103 Lesotho 3.59
104 Oman 3.54
105 Bahrain 3.52
105 Belarus 3.52
105 Russia 3.52
108 Pakistan 3.51
109 Cameroon 3.46
110 Haiti 3.39
111 Tajikistan 3.31
112 Burundi 3.29
113 Cambodia 3.23
114 Congo, Rep. 3.00
115 Iran 2.85
116 Chad 2.84
117 Uzbekistan 2.55
118 Turkmenistan 2.51
119 Congo, DR 2.47
120 Zimbabwe 2.37
121 South Sudan 2.30
122 Libya 2.29
123 Somalia 2.25
124 Sudan 1.97
125 Venezuela 1.86
126 Yemen 1.70
127 North Korea 1.30
128 Eritrea 1.13
128 Syria 1.13
 

In-depth country reports provide the basis for assessing the state of transformation and persistent challenges, and to evaluate the ability of policymakers to carry out consistent and targeted reforms. The BTI is the first cross-national comparative index that uses self-collected data to comprehensively measure the quality of governance during processes of transition.

The Status Index ranks the countries according to their quality of democracy and market economy as of January 31, 2017. 

The state of political transformation is measured in terms of five criteria, which in turn are derived from assessments made in response to 18 questions. The BTI’s concept of democracy goes well beyond other definitions, which are limited primarily to basic civil rights and the conduct of free elections. Stateness, which is seen as a precondition to democracy, is included in the BTI's definition of political transformation and examined through questions specifically dealing with the state’s monopoly on the use of force and basic administrative structures. It also entails an evaluation of the rule of law including the separation of powers and the prosecution of office abuse. The BTI puts a special emphasis on the evaluation of democratic consolidation. It assesses the quality of representation with regard to the party system and interest groups, and also measures social capital and the approval of democratic norms and procedures. 

The state of economic transformation is measured in terms of seven criteria, which are based on a total of 14 indicators. The BTI’s concept of a market economy includes not only aspects such as economic performance, regulatory or competition policy and property rights; it also includes elements of social justice, such as social safety nets, equality of opportunity and sustainability. In BTI terms, comprehensive development not only aims at economic growth, but also requires successful poverty alleviation and the freedom of action and choice for as many citizens as possible.

The Governance Index ranks the countries according to their leadership’s political management performance between February 2015 and January 2017.

By examining and evaluating decision-makers’ reform policies, the BTI sheds light on those factors determining success and failure on the way to democracy and a market economy. Successful transformation management implies that governments are consistent in pursuing their goals and use their resources wisely and effectively. It also implies that decision-makers cultivate the broadest possible consensus for their transformation goals and work reliably with external supporters and neighboring states.

The Management Index is comprised of five criteria, which are based on a total of 20 indicators. A government’s management performance is weighted with the level of difficulty, which is derived from three qualitative and three quantitative indicators. It reflects the observation that each country’s quality of transformation is influenced by structural constraints. In this way, difficult conditions and the scarcity of resources in a given country are factored into the equation for political management performance.